Citrulline is a noncoding amino acid that is produced by deimination of arginine through the post-translational modification citrullination.{56025} Citrullination is catalyzed by protein arginine deiminases (PADs) that convert positively charged arginine to electrically neutral citrulline, decreasing the isoelectric point of the protein, altering the native protein structure, and influencing protein ionic interactions.{56026} Protein citrullination has roles in many physiological and pathological processes, including autoimmunity, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.{56027} Citrullination of arginine 26 on histone H3 by PAD2 (Item No. 10785) displaces histone H3 from chromatin, resulting in chromatin decondensation and estrogen receptor a (ERa) transcriptional activation in a reporter assay.{30729} Citrullinated histones are also a component of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), a network of decondensed DNA and intracellular proteins secreted by neutrophils as a pathogen defense mechanism that is also a source of citrullinated autoantigens.{25917} Increased levels of antibodies to citrullinated protein antigens (ACPAs) are associated with increased disease severity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.{56028} Plasma levels of citrullinated histone H3 are increased in patients with advanced cancer, and citrullinated glial fibrillary acidic protein (citGFAP; Item No. 28622) has been found in postmortem hippocampus from patients with Alzheimer's disease.{56029,53021} Cayman's Anti-Citrulline Monoclonal Antibody (Clone 1D9) can be used for ELISA, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and immunoprecipitation (IP) applications.
100 ug
Cayman Chemical
Shipping & storage
Shipping condition
Dry Ice
Storage temperature